Skip periods

To help readers scan text, avoid using periods and other unnecessary punctuation.

  • Avoid using periods to end single sentences, particularly in:

    • Labels

    • Tooltip text

    • Bulleted lists

    • Dialog body text

Use periods

  • Multiple sentences

  • Long or complex sentences, if it suits the context

  • Any sentence followed by a link.

  • Links themselves should not be full sentences.


Skip colons

  • After labels in headings

  • For headings on lists of items, do not use colons

Use colons

  • For lists within body text


Use the oxford comma, except before an ampersand (&)

Your emails, chats, and drafts aren’t available

Your emails, chats and drafts aren’t available


Contractions can make a sentence easier to understand and scan.

However, sometimes "do not" or "cannot" can give more emphasis than "don't” or "can't" when caution is needed.

You're so close to claiming your first candy reward

You are so close to claiming your first candy reward

You can't undo this action

You cannot undo this action


Use abbreviations sparingly

Spell out words whenever possible. Shortened forms of words can be difficult for people to understand and screen readers to read. Avoid Latin abbreviations in UI text such as e.g. or etc. Instead, use full phrases like "for example," or "and more."

Collect candy to redeem NFTs, books, etc.!

Collect candy to redeem NFTs, books, and more!


Use exclamation points sparingly

Exclamation points can come across as shouting or overly friendly. Some exceptions include greetings or congratulatory messages.

  • Exclamation marks can be used to emphasize celebratory moments

  • Avoid using exclamation marks for empty states and common tasks. Save it for bigger accomplishments.

You added your first coin

No coins found! 
Add a coin to your portfolio


Use ellipses sparingly

Use ellipses to indicate an action in progress or incomplete text. Truncated text may appear with ellipses, but check with your engineering partners before implementing, as this often happens automatically.

  • Omit ellipses from menu items or buttons that open a dialog or start a process

  • Don’t use ellipses in buttons or menu items

  • Don’t add a space before ellipses


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Use parentheses to define terms

Parentheses can be used to define acronyms or jargon or when referencing a source. They shouldn’t be used when adding a side note or an afterthought of a sentence.

  • Don’t use parentheses to add extra thoughts. If information is needed, include it in the sentence without parentheses for easier scanning and improved comprehension.

  • Use parentheses to define terms and jargon

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Skip ampersands in body text

The “&” symbol can be used instead of “and” in headlines, column headers, table headers, navigation labels, and buttons. However, when there’s room, spelling out “and” can improve readability and make scanning easier.

“And” should be spelled out in sentences and paragraphs, before the final item in a 3+ item list, and in email subject lines.

Coins & NFTs

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Use dashes with caution

There are three kinds of dashes:

  1. Em dash: —

  2. En dash: –

  3. Hyphen: -

Em dashes are best avoided in UX writing, as they indicate a break in the flow of a sentence that could be simplified using a comma, period, or new sentence. Use an en dash without spaces to indicate a range, such as 9 AM–Noon.


Use hyphens with care

Hyphens can help readers better understand how words relate to each other by binding closely related words. They can also be used to represent negative numbers, such as -100. Spaces should never be used surrounding hyphens.

Refer to the Associated Press (AP) style guidelines if you are unsure whether an adjective or noun phrase needs a hyphen.

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